26. Four disparate cases – (1) Injunction against caveat – (2) Residuary beneficiary and prospective testator's family maintenance claimant with no caveatable interest – (3) Offer of caveat not sufficient security for costs – (4) Failure to remove caveat as breach of mortgage.

This blog deals with 4 cases not warranting a blog in their own right, at times however dealing with arcane points. They are –
R.G. Murch Nominees Pty Ltd v Paul David Annesley & Ors [2019] VSC 107 (26 February 2019) Sloss J. – A further contribution by Mr Annesley, the subject of Blog 4, to the law on injunctions against caveats, he succeeding in this instance.
In the matter of the Will of Dorothea Agnes Baird [2019] VSC 59 (13 February 2019) Keogh J. – A reminder that a residuary beneficiary of an estate does not have a proprietary interest in a specific asset during administration, nor does a prospective testator’s family maintenance claimant have an interest in land in the estate.
Brooklyn Landfill & Waste Recycling Pty Ltd v Commonwealth Golf Club Inc [2019] VSC 52 (6 February 2019) Hetyey JR. – which in short held that the offer by the plaintiff’s director to consent to lodgment of a caveat over her property was insufficient security for costs. [40], [42]
S Pty Ltd v B V [2019] VSC 125 (4 March 2019) Lansdowne AsJ. – which in short, in the course of a much wider dispute, noted that a registered proprietor, who commenced a proceeding for caveat removal but by orders agreed that the proceeding be stayed, was in breach of his obligation under a mortgage to cause a caveat lodged without the consent of the mortgagee to be removed. [34]

R.G. Murch Nominees Pty Ltd v Paul David Annesley & Ors [2019] VSC 107 (26 February 2019) Sloss J.
The facts were:

  • The first defendant (Annesley) was director of a company which owned a rural property mortgaged to a bank. There had been lengthy litigation between the bank and the company.  In August 2018 the bank conducted a mortgagee’s sale at which the plaintiff, whose sole director was Mr Murch (Murch), entered a contract to purchase the property. The contract was settled, the plaintiff became registered proprietor and a mortgage by it was registered.
  • After settlement of the sale there were altercations between Murch and Annesley, allegations of violence by Murch, intervention orders, and the execution by the defendants of a document whereby certain defendants were purportedly appointed to take control of property of the plaintiff for the purpose of enforcing a security interest.
  • The plaintiff brought this proceeding in substance to prevent the defendants interfering with the plaintiff or what it purchased, including seeking an injunction against registering or attempting to register any caveat over the land and certain other land of which the plaintiff was registered proprietor. It relied on the body of past conduct of Annesley in the improperly lodging caveats and similar documents, recorded in judgments of various courts, as manifesting his modus operandi.

As to caveats her Honour found or held –

1.    The plaintiff was in substance applying for a quia timet injunction and so was required to demonstrate a threatened infringement of the plaintiff’s rights sufficiently clearly to justify the court’s intervention.  This application did not arise from previous caveat lodgment over the land but from the defendants’ history. [79]  

2.     Authorities related to quia timet injunctive relief established the following principles –

(a)  the plaintiff must show that what the defendant intended or was likely to do would cause immediate (or imminent) and substantial damage to its property or business.  However, no fixed or absolute standard of proof was required;

(b)  the court would have regard to the degree of probability of apprehended injury, the degree of the seriousness of the injury, and the requirements of justice between the parties. [79]

3.     There being no evidence of the relevant defendants threatening or intending to lodge caveats over the plaintiff’s land, the plaintiff’s apprehension that they may do so did not qualify as an ‘imminent’ threat, and accordingly no injunction would issue. [87]

In the matter of the Will of Dorothea Agnes Baird [2019] VSC 59 (13 February 2019) Keogh J.

The facts were –

·     Dorothea Baird, who had two sons Peter and Michael, was registered proprietor of a property at Rhyll and was also registered as a one third proprietor of a property at Wonthaggi. 

·     On her death Peter obtained probate of her will under which she left her interest in the Wonthaggi property to him, made dispositions of property other than of land, and left the net residue of her estate to both sons equally as tenants in common. 

·    Michael foreshadowed a testator’s family maintenance proceeding.  He also lodged caveats against both properties stating as the grounds of his claim
that he was a beneficiary under the will.

·      Peter brought this proceeding inter alia under the TLA s. 90(3) to remove the caveats.

His Honour held –

1.    That the caveator had not raised a serious question to be tried that he had an interest in the properties.  In particular –

(a) as a residuary beneficiary he did not have a legal or equitable interest in a specific asset of the estate during the course of administration, only a chose in action, or personal right, to compel proper administration of the estate by the executor.  Further, the residue did not come into existence until administration of the estate was complete;

(b) the proposed testator’s family maintenance gave him no interest in the property. [21]-[22]

2.   The balance of convenience also favoured caveat removal. [23]

25. Delinquent lodging of caveat through PEXA – Contrite conveyancer dodges discipline.

Guirgis v JEA Developments Pty Limited [2019] NSWSC 164 (26 February 2019), Kunc J (Supreme Court of New South Wales)

This is the first NSW case dealt with in the caveatsvictoria.blog.  It is a reminder of the care needed in lodging a caveat, specifically here in the context of the Electronic Conveyancing National Law, as denoted in the opening words of the judgment –

“Lodging a caveat is not a trivial act to be undertaken lightly.  It has immediate legal effect and can have significant commercial and financial consequences.  Legal practitioners and licensed conveyancers who advise on, prepare and certify caveats that are lodged electronically have an important role to ensure that obviously unmeritorious caveats are not lodged.  This judgment arises from a failure by a licensed conveyancer to perform that role properly”.

The facts were –

  • The plaintiff and his wife were engaged in Family Court litigation. She was the sole director, secretary and shareholder of the defendant.
  • In December 2018 he entered into a contract for the sale of a property owned by him, with settlement due on 25 February 2019.
  • On 11 February 2019 a caveat was lodged over the land electronically through PEXA. The caveat had been prepared, certified, electronically signed and lodged on behalf of the defendant by a licenced conveyancer, whose company was described on the caveat as the “Responsible Subscriber”.  The estate or interest claimed was a charge, by virtue of an agreement between the defendant and the plaintiff.  Under “Details Supporting The Claim” was “Outstanding loan”.  The caveat also stated certain things to the best of the knowledge of the Subscriber including that the caveator had a good and valid claim to the estate or interest claimed.
  • After his solicitor unsuccessfully attempted to obtain evidence of the alleged agreement from the conveyancer, the plaintiff commenced this proceeding seeking orders under ss. 74MA and 74P of the Real Property Act 1900 (NSW) for the removal of a caveat and for compensation against the defendant.
  • At the hearing on 20 February the plaintiff asserted that he had never entered into any agreement of the kind alleged in the caveat. Mrs Guirgis, who appeared in person, stated that there was no written loan agreement and insofar as there was any agreement it was “a husband and wife agreement” containing nothing giving the defendant a mortgage, charge or other interest in the property.  She acknowledged that the caveat was a negotiation tactic for a Family Court hearing.  The defendant was ordered to remove the caveat with costs.
  • The judge questioned Mrs Guirgis about her dealings with the conveyancer. Mrs Guirgis stated that: she phoned the conveyancer and asked that caveat be lodged; the conveyancer gave no advice about this; and the conveyancer asked whether there was an agreement between the plaintiff and the defendant to which the answer was yes, but the conveyancer did not ask whether it was in writing or oral.
  • His Honour formed a prima facie view that the conveyancer had been delinquent, required the conveyancer to appear to explain why the papers should not be referred to the appropriate body to consider disciplinary action, and on the  conveyancer appearing and apologizing etc (under the heading in the judgment  “The Conveyancer’s contrite explanation”, including “It is the first caveat I have ever put on” [36]) decided to take no further action, but also published his reasons “to make clear how seriously the court viewed the obligations of those who advise  on, prepare and certify caveats” ([5]).

 

His Honour –

  1. Set out at length the NSW statutory provisions on caveats and electronic conveyancing (ie the Electronic Conveyancing National Law). [19]-[28]
  2. Held that the caveat and the conveyancer’s purported certification of it were deficient in at least five respects. [29]
  3. As to the conveyancer’s representation that –

“The Caveator, to the best of the knowledge of the Subscriber identified in the execution of this Caveat document, has a good and valid claim to the estate or interest claimed as specified in this Caveat”.

held that “to the best of the knowledge” conveyed a representation that the conveyancer had a suitable level of knowledge about how an interest in land can arise and had taken reasonable steps to inform himself or herself of the relevant facts so as to be able to express a properly informed opinion. This was also true of the other statements in the caveat said to be “to the best of the knowledge of” the person or entity electronically signing it.   Such statements did not, however, amount to an unqualified warranty of the existence of the relevant state of affairs. [30], [33]

  1. The conveyancer appeared to have lodged the caveat with either a reckless disregard for the conveyancer’s obligations or had failed to meet the standard of care to be expected of a reasonably competent conveyancer certifying a caveat. No reasonably competent conveyancer who had bothered to take proper instructions from Mrs Guirgis would have co-operated in the lodgement of the caveat. [34]
  2. His Honour concluded in part –

“As New South Wales’ conveyancing system moves to a completely electronic platform, the role of conveyancers, solicitors and others as persons qualified to prepare and lodge caveats becomes all the more important.  Ordinary members of the public are, in practical terms, no longer able to lodge caveats without the intervention of a “Subscriber”, who in many cases will be a solicitor or licensed conveyancer.  The requirement to give the requisite representations and certifications operates to confer on them the role of a guardian at the gate”. [39]

Comment.

Victorian cases exposing delinquent lodgment of caveats by legal practitioners are: Legal Services Commissioner v Mercader [2011] VCAT 2062; Pearl Lingerie Australia Pty Ltd v Giarratana [2012] VSC 451; Legal Services Commissioner v Kotsifas [2014] VCAT 1615 (arising from the previous case); Gatto Corporate Solutions Pty Ltd v Mountney [2016] VSC 752.  Space does not permit reference to any other than Mercader, which also arose in the matrimonial context.

In Mercader, on termination of her instructions for a wife in a matrimonial dispute, the solicitor lodged a caveat over the former husband’s property (in which the wife claimed a share) claiming an equitable estate in fee simple “By virtue of constructive trust”.  The notion that the circumstances gave rise to the solicitor having a caveatable interest in the husband’s land was described by Judge Lacava as “a legal nonsense” [27] as was the interest claimed in the caveat [43].  The solicitor was charged with unsatisfactory professional conduct by lodging and/or refusing to withdraw the caveat where she knew and/or ought to have known that she had no caveatable interest and by providing information to the Registrar of Titles that she ought to have known was false.  She was convicted with the question of penalty adjourned.

24. Solicitors breathe a sigh of relief! – Compensation claim under TLA s. 118 – Whether solicitor who lodged caveat liable – Scope of “Any person lodging … any caveat”.

Lanciana v Alderuccio [2019] VSC 198 (28 March 2019), Moore J.

The facts and relevant legislation were –

  • The plaintiff and Bloomingdale Holdings Pty Ltd (Bloomingdale) were equal unitholders in two trusts. The sole shareholder and director of Bloomingdale was Antonio Gangemi.
  • In 2001–2 the trustee of one trust purchased a property and the trustee of the other trust purchased another property.
  • A dispute arose between the plaintiff and Gangemi concerning their business dealings and rights in respect of both properties. The defendants acted as solicitors for Bloomingdale and Gangemi.
  • In 2003 the dispute was settled by an agreement whereby Gangemi’s and Bloomingdale’s interests in both properties would be transferred to the plaintiff or his entities. This transfer to the plaintiff occurred, on which he became solely entitled to the beneficial interest in both properties, and caveats lodged on behalf of Bloomingdale over both properties were withdrawn.
  • However, on 29 March 2005, the defendants as “Alderuccio Solicitors” lodged caveats over both properties on behalf of Bloomingdale as caveator, claiming an equitable estate in fee simple pursuant to a deed of trust dated 25 February 2002 between Bloomingdale and both trustees. The caveats identified “Alderuccio Solicitors” as the address for service of notice and were signed by an “agent being a Current Practitioner under the Legal Practice Act 1996”.
  • The plaintiff alleged that these 2005 caveats caused it loss and damage.
  • The TLA s. 118 provided that –
    “Any person lodging with the Registrar without reasonable cause any caveat under this Act shall be liable to make to any person who sustains damage thereby such compensation as the Court deems just and orders”.
  • The plaintiff sued the defendants alleging that when the 2005 caveats were lodged they knew or ought to have known that Bloomingdale did not have a caveatable interest and could not reasonably have held an honest belief based on reasonable grounds that it had a caveatable interest capable of supporting any caveats.
  • The court heard a preliminary question including whether, assuming the foregoing facts, the defendants were “a person” lodging a caveat for the purposes of s. 118.

His Honour –

1.    Held that the defendants were not such “a person”.  The case contains much statutory analysis going back to the 19th century and reference to cases for this conclusion which it is unnecessary to set out. [5]

2.   Approved the summary of applicable principles under s. 118 in KB Corporate Pty Ltd. v Sayfe and Anor (see Blog No. 9) –

(a)  the applicant must show the caveator had no caveatable interest;

(b)  the applicant must show the caveator did not have an honest belief based on reasonable grounds that a caveatable interest existed;

(c)  the test is partially subjective and partially objective;

(d)  the subjective component requires an examination of the caveator’s belief and whether it was honestly held;

(e)  it is objective in that it requires that the belief is held on reasonable grounds;

(f)   it is a fallacy is to think that the absence of a caveatable interest at the time when the caveat was lodged establishes that the caveator did not have a reasonable basis for a belief that it was entitled to lodge a caveat; and

(g)  legal advice that the caveator was entitled to lodge the caveat may be of considerable significance in determining whether the claimant has established that the caveat was lodged without reasonable cause, but the content and accuracy of the legal advice must be evaluated with all other relevant circumstances. [80]

3.    Held that “Any person” in s. 118 –

(a)  was capable of covering someone who lodged a caveat without any authority. [82]

(b)  may cover: someone named as executor who had not yet taken out probate where the unregistered interest which could the subject of a caveat was part of the estate and was threatened, or; someone seeking a guardianship order in respect of an incapable person who had such an unregistered interest. [64], [82]

23. Caveat based on constructive trust imposed due to theft.

Aust Café Pty Ltd v Thushara de Soysa & Ors [2019] VCC 237 (15 March 2019) Judge A. Ryan.

The facts were –

  • The second defendant was at all material times the registered proprietor of a property, mortgaged to the ANZ Bank from 2006 to 24 August 2016 and thereafter to Westpac.
  • The plaintiff operated a café where it employed the first defendant as a floor manager and, from August 2009 to February 2014, his then wife the second defendant as a food server.  The third defendant, now married to the first defendant, was also employed there.
  • According to the third defendant’s bank-statements between 29 November 2012 and 30 December 2013 $32,400 was transferred from her to the second defendant by regular payments of $600, said to represent spousal maintenance by the first defendant to the second defendant.
  • There was also evidence that between 22 February 2013 and 8 January 2014 payments of $600 were regularly made into the second defendant’s home loan account.
  • The plaintiff plead or affidavits filed on its behalf deposed that –
    • The first and second defendant had misappropriated moneys by undervaluing customer transactions, and the first defendant retained the extent of the undervaluation and distributed part of it to the second defendant;
    • The second defendant applied some of this money to pay off her mortgage;
    • She had admitted the misappropriation to a private detective retained by the plaintiff.
  • The second defendant plead or deposed –
    • that she had not stolen from the plaintiff but was instructed by its director to record large cash sales as low cash sales, because he did not want a high valuation of the business for Family Law purposes;
    • that the cash registers were cleared every 15 minutes and there was CCTV surveillance;
    • that the alleged admissions were inadmissible;
  • The plaintiff caveated over the property claiming a freehold estate on the grounds of “Implied, Resulting or Constructive Trust”.
  • The second defendant applied under the TLA s. 90(3) for removal of the caveat.

Judge Ryan held:

  1. A person who misappropriates funds held them from the time of receipt on constructive trust for the defrauded party. [20], [21], [24]-[26]
  2. Where those trust funds were used exclusively to acquire property, so long as the trust property could be traced and followed into other property into which it has been converted, that property remained subject to the trust. Further, equitable rights were not lost by the mere fact that the misappropriated funds were mixed with other funds. [20]
  3. The beneficiary may claim a charge over the acquired property to the value of the
    misappropriated funds. [20]
  4. Where the thief gave the funds to a volunteer recipient that recipient came under an equitable obligation once it had notice of the theft. [21]
  5. There were serious questions to be tried about: whether the second defendant colluded with the first defendant to defraud the plaintiff; whether she received stolen moneys via the third defendant; whether any stolen moneys were applied towards her mortgage repayments.  There was accordingly a serious question to be tried that the plaintiff had the interest in the property which it claimed. [28], [18]
  6. The balance of convenience favoured the plaintiff: the second defendant did not point to any current prejudice in dealing with her property beyond general disadvantage. The course which appeared to carry the lowest risk of injustice favoured maintenance of the caveat. [29]
  7. The second defendant was ordered to pay the costs of the application. [32]

Comment: This is a relatively unusual type of case. For completeness a longer list, taken from the author’s Leo Cussen Paper on caveats in July 2017, and including a case cited by her Honour, is –

“Constructive trusts imposed following breach of fiduciary duty or trust. Examples are: Dennis Hanger Pty Ltd v Brown, [2007] VSC 495 – a company maintained a caveat over a former employee’s land, he having used forged company cheques to make mortgage repayments; George v Biztole Corporation Pty Ltd, 26 February 1996, Ashley J – a caveat was maintainable where the alleged misappropriation was applied in making improvements to land already owned by the defaulting fiduciary; Dharmalingham v Registrar of Titles [2005] VSC 417 – a wife maintained a caveat over land given by her husband to his sister, on the grounds of “matrimonial property of caveator and husband fraudulently transferred to husband’s sister”. In Somerville v Nufarm Australia Ltd [2002] VSC 520 a caveat based on an alleged constructive trust over land of the wife of a former employee, who had gambled with his employer’s funds and paid proceeds to her, failed on the ground of no serious question whether the wife had active or constructive knowledge of her husband’s wrongdoing”. 

21. Options – Indemnity costs – Injunction against caveating

Pollard v Pollard [2019] VSC 21 (8 February 2019) Daly AsJ. 

Kuipers v Harrington (No 2) [2019] VSC 190 (25 March 2019) Derham AsJ.

 

These two cases are in contrast.  Pollard illustrates that a well drawn option to purchase creates a caveatable interest.  Kuipers illustrates a badly drawn option clause, no caveatable interest, and consequential award of indemnity costs and enjoining of the caveator. 

Pollard v Pollard [2019] VSC 21 (8 February 2019) Daly AsJ.  This was not a case under the TLA s. 90(3) but was a trial in which, if the defendant succeeded (as she did), she would have a caveatable interest.  The facts were –

·       In 2004 the parties entered into a deed inter alia concerning a property owned by a company and later by the plaintiff which included (cl. 5.7) that if the plaintiff wished to sell it he must first give the defendant the option to purchase it: at a value calculated by multiplying the annual gross rent paid by the tenants at such time by 10 times; but if it was untenanted, then at current market value established by sworn valuation; and the defendant was to be given at least 30 days’ prior notice in writing of such intention to sell, with her then to exercise her option to purchase within 21 days of receipt of such notice;

·    In 2009 the defendant lodged a caveat on the grounds of “As beneficiary of an option to purchase pursuant to a written agreement” then describing the agreement;

·    In February 2018 the plaintiff informed the defendant that the property was going on the market, stated its market value according to a real estate agent, and asked her intentions.  At that time the property was leased to a tenant;

·      Initially the defendant stated that she was not interested in purchasing the property and that the caveat would only be lifted at settlement of a sale.  Subsequently she confirmed that she wished to exercise her right to purchase at 10 times the current annual rent; 

·       The plaintiff commenced proceedings seeking removal of the caveat.   

Daly AsJ found or held –

1.    The plaintiff was obliged to give the defendant the option to purchase the property at the price calculated in accordance with the Deed, ie to give 30 days’ notice of intention to sell and concurrently to give the option to purchase the property at ten times the annual rental receivable at the time of the notice.  The obligation to offer the property to the defendant for sale at market value only arose if the property was untenanted. [32]

2.    The defendant was only obliged to respond to an offer made in accordance with the Deed.  No such offer was ever made.  She was not required to enquire whether the property was tenanted. [35]

3. The defendant was entitled to an order for specific performance of the plaintiff’s obligations. [34], [37]-[46]

 

Kuipers v Harrington (No 2) [2019] VSC 190 (25 March 2019) Derham AsJ.

The chronology was –

·         The plaintiffs owned a 38.38 ha. property at West Rosebud.  On 4 April 2014 they and the first defendant executed a Heads of Agreement and a Deed of Agreement”.  Under the Deed the first defendant was to facilitate development of the property by subdividing it into ten acre lots, in return for transfer to him of one such lot.  Clause 7 of the Deed purported to give the first defendant the plaintiffs’ consent to the lodgement of a caveat over the land to ‘better secure the opportunity’ for the first defendant to develop it;

·         The Heads, described by his Honour as “an ill drawn document ([14]) –

·         Recited that:

·    the seller has agreed to grant to the option holder a three-year call option for the properties to either purchase the properties, source a joint venture partner or investor, source a funder to develop them or to source an ultimate buyer/buyers.  This was the only reference in the document to a period of three years for exercise of the call option;

·     if the option holder exercised the call option, the seller and the ultimate buyer and/or their nominees must enter into an unconditional contract of sale;

·     the option holder was entitled to earn the profit margin between the seller and buyer less any relevant costs, fees, and commissions due to third parties.

·         Defined:

·    “Expiry Date” of the Heads as “three years from the commencement date” (but the term “Expiry Date” was not subsequently used in the document);

·      “Option Call” as an irrevocable offer to enter into a REIV sale contract with an ultimate buyer.

·      Provided, in a Payment Agreement”, that for facilitating the subdivision the first defendant would receive a ten acre parcel;

·         Provided that “the seller grants to the option holder an irrevocable right and option: (a) to require the seller to enter into a contract of sale with either the option holder or the ultimate buyer (cl. 2.1(a)); (b) to nominate a person or entity as selected buy (sic) the option holder to enter into a contract as the ultimate buyer, to purchase the property or properties listed on this agreement and on the terms contained in this agreement”; (cl. 2.1(b));

·   Provided: that the “call option” may be exercised during the term of the agreement by notice (cl. 2.2); the option holder, the first defendant, must pay the seller (the plaintiffs) $1 which is deemed to be a holding deposit towards the purchase of the properties” (cl. 2.8); “This agreement can only be terminated by either of; the expiry of this agreement, or by mutual consent of both parties (cl 2.11);

·       Provided that (cl. 4):

“The seller consents and grants to the option holder and the ultimate buyer, an interest in the property for the purpose of securing the development approval, and when a Contract is offered, the option holder and/or the ultimate buyer are authorised to lodge a caveat on the title of the property, a) but the caveat shall be discharged in favour of mortgages to be lodged for a contract of purchase, b) the caveat will protect any equitable interest of the option holders until settlement of the contract by the ultimate buyer; c) cost of removal will be paid by the lodger of the caveat”.

·     Nothing then occurred until 2018 when, after the plaintiffs had entered into a contract to sell the land to someone else, the first defendant lodged a caveat claiming a freehold estate in the land pursuant to an agreement dated 4 April 2014;

·     On an application by the plaintiffs to remove this caveat Daly AsJ found that the caveator’s prospects of maintaining a claim for an interest in the land were modest at best and on the  balance of convenience the caveat should be removed;

·       A month after this removal the first defendant lodged a second caveat claiming an interest as chargee apparently on the ground that the Heads created a charge;

·    The plaintiffs applied under the Transfer of Land Act s. 90(3) to remove the caveat.  Before filing the summons the plaintiffs’ solicitors wrote foreshadowing an application for indemnity costs. 

Derham AsJ held –

1.    On its proper construction, the option right, if any, conferred by the Heads was limited to three years from the date of the agreement. [20]

2.    However the Heads were uncertain, and therefore void and unenforceable, because 

(a)    it was unclear who was responsible to pay the option holder the ‘profit margin’, how it was to be calculated or what if any costs were to be taken into account;

(b)     the price at which the land was to be sold was to be determined by later agreement;

(c)     many terms of the subsequent REIV sale contract were unknown;

(d)     the nomination provision was uncertain in its reference to “on the terms contained in this agreement” which were unidentified; and

(e)   it was unclear whether the contract of sale to be entered into was to be between the plaintiffs, the option holder and the ultimate buyer under which the option holder was to be paid some unidentified profit margin. [21]

3.    The wording of clause 4 (consent to caveat) was unclear as to what interest in the property was purportedly granted and it appeared that the right to lodge a caveat did not arise until a contract was offered to the sellers. [23]

4.    There was accordingly no serious question to be tried that the Heads gave the caveator a caveatable interest because:

(f)      there was no charging clause;

(g)     the call option was void for uncertainty;

(h)     the time for exercise of the call option had expired; and

(i)   the sellers’ consent to caveat was little better than a contractual consent to lodge a caveat in certain circumstances, which had not arisen and, if they had, would not give rise to an interest in the land. [24] 

5.    The balance of convenience also favoured removal of the caveat. [26]

6.    Indemnity costs were awarded against the caveator.  His Honour comprehensively recited the principles governing an award of indemnity costs.  An order for indemnity costs warranted by: the nominated basis for lodging the caveat, ie a charge, was untenable; the pre-summons warning; the caveator was attempting to use the caveat as a bargaining chip. [33]-[35]

7.    The first defendant would be enjoined against lodging any further caveat on the basis of the Heads or the Deed because the lodgement of the second caveat was frivolous, vexatious and an abuse of process.  The caveator had shown a profound disregard of the absence of any underlying basis for the second caveat and displayed that he was ready, willing and able to continue to disrupt any sale.  There was accordingly a prima facie case that he would continue to lodge caveats if not restrained. The balance of convenience also favoured the grant of an injunction. [36]-[37]