Blog 47.  No contract of sale – No caveatable interest

In Hazelwood v Mercurio & Ors [2021] VSC 362 (22 June 2021) Daly AsJ –

  • primarily deals with an agent lacking authority to conclude a binding contract on behalf of a vendor (similar to the lack of authority of a solicitor: Leahy v Javni [2020] VSC 680 at [122]);
  • notes that, if a document existed whereby the vendor expressly authorised the agent to execute the contract on her behalf, it would be a breach of the Civil Procedure Act not to disclose it;
  • distinguishes English authority on whether an exchange of emails can comply with the Statute of Frauds;
  • held that if the caveators had established a binding contract the balance of convenience would have favoured them;
  • stayed the removal of caveat for 7 days to enable the caveators to apply for an injunction restraining completion of a further sale based on an alleged estoppel.

The facts were –

  • The plaintiff vendor gave an Exclusive Sale Authority to an agent (whose employee was Campbell) to market an apartment and two separately titled car parking spaces in the Melbourne CBD.  The Authority provided that the agent would advertise, market and sell the property and that “sold” meant (in normal circumstances) “the result of obtaining a binding offer”.  Clause 13 also authorised the agent to –
    • instruct a legal practitioner or conveyancer to prepare a section 32 statement, contract of sale, agree the content of either document and advise and agree on other amendments or additions to either document;
    • fill-up a standard form contract or contract to record the sale as permitted by statute;
    • negotiate and, with the vendor’s approval, agree and record, or have the legal practitioner or conveyancer record, the final terms of, and obtain signatures to, the contract;
    • attend to contract exchange; receive the price and certain advice or notices; and make public certain information.
  • The caveators deposed that on about 11 February they made an unconditional offer to purchase the apartment and one car space for $750,000, with settlement within seven days. Campbell deposed that caveators imposed a very short deadline on the offer and that he conveyed it to the vendor.
  • The caveators deposed that on 16 February Campbell said that he had found a purchaser for the other space and that the vendor had accepted their offer.  Campbell disputed this, deposing that although he could not remember his exact words he had no intention of conveying that a sale had been completed until signing of a written agreement. 
  • The vendor deposed that Campbell told her that he had located a potential purchaser of the apartment and one car space and another purchaser of the second space, and that she instructed him to amend the documents accordingly.    
  • On 18 February Campbell emailed the caveators: stating that if they could “confirm the below points for me” he would start the paperwork.  The points were: whether they had a conveyancer; their full names and address; price $750,000 with a 10% deposit; as to time for settlement; solicitors’ details.  The email concluded: “New paperwork is getting drawn up at our end so nothing for you to do at this stage”.
  • The caveators provided full names, address, lawyer’s details, and stated that settlement would be on 12 March.  
  • On 24 February Campbell emailed an unsigned section 32 statement and contract.  His email stated that he had just received these documents and not yet reviewed them “so let me know any questions you have and I’ll work through them”.   The unsigned contract named the vendor, referred to the apartment and to particulars of title of one space, but omitted purchasers’ names, price and settlement date.  When a caveator queried this Campbell replied that he had “just hit send as soon as I received and so you could have your people quickly review it before signing”.
  • On being informed by Campbell that someone else had purchased the apartment and both spaces the defendants on 2 March caveated on the grounds of a “part performed oral agreement” with the plaintiff.   On 4 March this contract was executed.  The vendor issued a notice under s. 89A of the Transfer of Land Act (TLA), leading to the caveators issuing a Proceeding with a Statement of Claim.  The vendor issued this proceeding under s. 90(3).  Campbell deposed that on average more than ten apartments in the building would be marketed and sold in any year.

The Victorian Statute of Frauds provision, contained in the Instruments Act s. 126, provides that –

“An action must not be brought to charge a person … upon a contract for the sale … of an interest in land unless the agreement on which the action is brought, or a memorandum or note of the agreement, is in writing signed by the person to be charged or by a person lawfully authorised in writing by that person to sign such an agreement, memorandum or note”.

In their Statement of Claim the caveators alleged, in the alternative to breach of contract, that the vendor represented that she would sell the apartment to them, such that she was estopped from resiling from that representation. 

Daly AsJ held –

 

Philip H. Barton

Owen Dixon Chambers West

Friday, September 17, 2021

31 Caveat by bankrupt on ground of “estoppel” removed.

In Official Trustee in Bankruptcy v Shaw & Anor [2019] VSC 681 (14 October 2019) John Dixon J.

The facts were –

·      In 2014 a sequestration order was made against the first defendant who was the sole registered proprietor of a residential unit and an associated car parking space.  In July 2019 the Official Trustee entered into a contract to sell the property with settlement due on 4 October 2019.  In August the bankrupt ceased to be registered proprietor of the land.  In September the Federal Court dismissed an application by the bankrupt for interlocutory injunctive relief directed at the Official Trustee’s decision to sell.

·       On 3 October 2019 the bankrupt lodged caveats over each property on the ground of “estoppel”. 

John Dixon J. ordered removal of the caveats on the following grounds –

1.   There was no serious question to be tried or prima facie case that principles of estoppel could give the bankrupt a claim to an interest in the land enforceable against the Official Trustee because –

(a)   under s. 58(1) of the Bankruptcy Act (Cth) all of his right, title and interest in the land vested in the Official Trustee whether as his property when he became bankrupt or as after-acquired property;

(b)  it was inconceivable that circumstances that would give rise to his estoppel extended before the time the bankrupt ceased to be the registered proprietor, because it was nonsensical to suggest that the registered proprietor had a claim against himself for an estate or interest in land pursuant to an estoppel;

(c)   the caveat was lodged for the improper purpose of preventing sale while he appealed the Federal Court decision.   The only proper purpose of a caveat was to prevent dealings with that property because of a claimed interest in it.

[44]-[48], [53], [55]

2.     The balance of convenience was against the caveator because –

(a)  it was frustrating the settlement of the contract, affecting the interests of a third party purchaser adversely, and if, as would be the consequence of significant delay, the sale was terminated there would be the prospect of prejudice to the caveator’s creditors;

(b)   he could not proffer an undertaking as to damages;

(c)   he had not explained why the caveat had been lodged so close to settlement.  He could still in the context of further Federal Court proceedings seek relief affecting the future conduct of the Official Trustee in relation to the proceeds of sale.

[55]-[58]

Philip H. Barton
Owen Dixon Chambers West
14 April 2020